A guardian angel is an angel that is assigned to protect and guide a particular person, group, kingdom, or country. According to Rabbi Leo Trepp, in late Judaism, the belief developed that, “The people have a heavenly representative, a guardian angel. Every human being has a guardian angel. Previously the term `Malakh’, angel, simply meant messenger of God.”. An angel’s missions go in two directions: it may serve as an emissary of God downward and it may also serve as the one carries things upwards from below… The angel cannot reveal its true form to man, whose being, senses and instruments of perception belong only to the world of action – it continues to belong to a different dimension even when apprehended in one form or another… The angel who is sent to us from another world does not always have a significance or impact beyond the normal laws of physical nature. With this scriptural sanction, Peter’s angel was the most commonly depicted guardian angel in art, and was normally shown in images of the subject, most famously Raphael’s fresco of the Deliverance of Saint Peter in the Vatican. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Honorius and believed that it was the lowest order of angels who served as guardians, and his view was most successful in popular thought, but Duns Scotus said that any angel is bound by duty and obedience to the Divine Authority to accept the mission to which that angel is assigned. In his March 31, 1997 Regina Caeli address, Pope Saint John Paul II referred to the concept of guardian angel and concluded the address with the statement: “Let us invoke the Queen of angels and saints, that she may grant us, supported by our guardian angels, to be authentic witnesses to the Lord’s paschal mystery”. “Pope Francis concluded with a series of questions so that each one can examine his/her own conscience:”How is my relationship with my guardian angel? Do I listen to him? Do I bid him good day in the morning? Do I tell him: ‘guard me while I sleep?’ Do I speak with him? Do I ask his advice? …Each one of us can do so in order to evaluate “The relationship with this angel that the Lord has sent to guard me and to accompany me on the path, and who always beholds the face of the Father who is in heaven”. There was an old Irish custom that suggested including in bedtime prayers a request for the Blessed Mother to tell one the name of their guardian angel, and supposedly within a few days one would “Know” the name by which they could address their angel. According to Aquinas, “On this road man is threatened by many dangers both from within and without, and therefore as guardians are appointed for men who have to pass by an unsafe road, so an angel is assigned to each man as long as he is a wayfarer.” By means of an angel, God is said to introduce images and suggestions leading a person to do what is right. Father Giovangiuseppe Califano recounted how, one day, a newly appointed bishop confessed to Pope John XXIII “That he could not sleep at night due to an anxiety which was caused by the responsibility of his office.” “The pope told him, ‘You know, I also thought the same when I was elected pope. But one day, I dreamed about my guardian angel, and it told me not to take everything so seriously.'” Pope John attributed the idea of calling Second Vatican Council to an inspiration from his guardian angel. Justin Fontenot of the Prayerful Anglican states that the “Guardian angel concept is clearly present in the Old Testament, and its development is well marked” and he continues, stating that in “The New Testament the concept of guardian angel may be noted with greater precision”. Before the Eastern Orthodox liturgy of the Communion of the Faithful, a prayer asks “For an angel of peace, a faithful guide, a guardian of our souls and bodies, let us entreat the Lord. Amen.”. The Reverend Donald Schneider, a Lutheran priest, wrote that the concept of a guardian angel is found in Psalm 91, which includes a verse stating “For [God] will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways. On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone”. “Perhaps every Christian has a guardian angel. It may be that there is one angel to every Christian, or a score of them; or one may have charge of a score of Christians. Some of the ancient fathers believed that every city had a guardian angel, while others assigned one to every house and every man. None of us know how much we are indebted to angels for our deliverance from imminent peril, disease, and malicious plots of men and devils. Where the pious die, angels are to carry the soul to heaven, though it be a soul of a Lazarus.” A parody appears in Byron’s Don Juan: “Her guardian angel had given up his garrison”.